Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition which can cause unusual vaginal discharge.

Bacterial vaginosis: an overview

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when the balance of bacteria inside the vagina becomes disrupted. It can cause unusual vaginal discharge.

BV is not a sexually transmitted infection, however it can be tested for and treated at a sexual health clinic.

Click here to find out more about BV.

Frequently Asked Questions

How does BV spread?

The vagina naturally contains many different bacteria. When the number of certain bacteria increases, the balance of chemicals is disrupted and can cause BV.

Although BV is not an STI, you are at a higher risk of developing the condition if you are sexually active, or if you smoke.

What are the symptoms of BV?

Around half of people with BV have no symptoms. In these cases, the condition does not pose any threat to your health or pregnancy.

BV does not usually cause any vaginal soreness or itching.

It usually affects vaginal discharge. Discharge could:

  • Develop a strong fishy smell, particularly after sexual intercourse
  • Become a white or grey colour
  • Become thin and watery.
How do I know if I've got it?

You can get tested for BV at an axess clinic or by your GP.

Your sexual health clinician will ask you about your symptoms and they may examine your vagina. In some cases, a small sample of vaginal discharge will be taken using a plastic loop or swab so it can be examined for signs of BV.

Can it be treated?

BV can usually be successfully treated using a short course of antibiotic tablets or an antibiotic gel that you apply inside your vagina. You can get treatment from your GP, local sexual health clinic and in pharmacies.

Anyone pregnant who has symptoms should get prompt treatment, as BV can cause complications and has also been linked to a risk of miscarriage.

It is common for BV to recur. More than half of those successfully treated for BV will find their symptoms return, usually within three months. People who have frequent episodes of BV may be referred to a genitourinary medicine (GUM) specialist.

How can it be prevented?

Although the cases of BV are not well understood, it can be useful to avoid anything that could upset the natural bacterial balance in your vagina, such as using unscented soaps, bubble baths, vaginal deodorant or strong washing detergent, or performing vaginal douching (cleaning out the vagina).